Conceptual Systems (CP)
An example of a conceptual system is a simulation of a pond or the blue prints for a wheel barrel. CS provide means for communication and understanding. Math and science are the most fundamental CS. Science is the CS that is based on physical reality to the greatest extent possible. Because all scientific knowledge is attained by observation and experimentation, it is the most concrete CS. Math on the other hand, is the most abstract. It can be applied to almost anything.
There are essentially two kinds of conceptual systems: conceptual systems based on CS (CC) and CS based on physical systems (CP). In practice, most CS are complex CC. For example, imaginary numbers are a CS based on the CS mathematics. The imaginary number “i” is the solution to the mathematically unsolvable equation “x * x = -1.” Also, consider this: a simulation of a pond is a CP if it directly models the pond PS. It is a CC if the simulation is based on scientific laws without directly observing physical phenomena.
The major CS are communication, math and science. Communication is driven by language, primarily written and spoken, and also includes visual arts, music, dance and theatrics. Math and science are essential for defining objects and events in time/space, but without the ability to write to some extent, a society could not record enough scientific and mathematical information to progress in those areas. While only considering Latin and English, it is still hard to establish a hierarchy between written language, math and science. The three obviously evolved together. They are hopelessly woven into a tangled hierarchy known as “information.”
Written and spoken languages are used to express physical objects, events and concepts. “He died.” may be a factual account of an event, but if one says “Love died.” they are expressing a concept. There is no physical form of love that can die.
Math is a CS in which numbering units are defined. The fundamental aspects of math are addition and subtraction. A basic mathematical system allows one to express such concepts as “there are two oranges here” and “if one orange is taken away, there will be one orange left” or “if one orange is added, there will be three oranges total.”
Science is a CS in which physical observations and experiments are used to test theories and establish facts. If theoretical data is proven sound by multiple valid experiments then that data is added to the fundamental scientific bodies of knowledge such as physics, chemistry, and biology.